Audio Glossary: G

In Hinduism an elephant-headed, pot-bellied god who removes obstacles, the son of Parvati and adopted son of Shiva.
The first book of the Bible.
In Sikhism, a knowledgeable person, especially one who has studied scripture and Sikh history.
In Islam, the greater ablution, a washing of the entire body, required before prayer (salah) or touching a Qur'an.
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The word used philosophically for the supreme being in theism (the belief in a single divine being), or religiously for the object of faith in monotheism.
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A giant Philistine warrior who is defeated in single combat by David in a Biblical story.
Unfaithful wife of the prophet Hosea; as told in the Bible in the book of Hosea, the prophet used this story to comment on Israel's unfaithfulness to God.
Good Samaritan, the
After two Jewish religious leaders 'passed by on the other side', the good Samaritan in Jesus's parable stops to give aid to a Jew who had been robbed and beaten. (Samaritans were descendants of the northern kingdom of Israel, who were considered outsiders by the Jews who had been exiled to Babylon.).
Literally, good news‚ The word is used of 1) four books of the Bible which tell the story of the life of Jesus (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John), and also of 2) the central message of Christianity.
In Hinduism a sub-group of a jati, members of a gotra traditionally have to marry outside the gotra but within the jati.
In a Sikh Gurdwara, the person who looks after the Guru Granth Sahib and the Gurdwara more generally, and who will often recite aloud from the holy book for worshippers.
Great Commandments
Jesus reduced 'all the Law and all the Prophets' to two commandments‚ to love God and to love one's neighbour as oneself.
In Hinduism one of the three qualities found in nature, i.e. sattva (purity), rajas (energy) and tamas (inertia).
The seat or throne of the Guru in Sikhism.
(Guru-dwara, 'Guru's doorway') A Sikh place of worship.
God-centred, an attribute of a spiritual person in Sikhism.
In Sikhism, a festival of celebration of an event in the life of one of the Gurus.
In Hinduism a teacher or a spiritual guide; in Sikhism one of ten human figures foundational to the tradition, or the holy book (Guru Granth Sahib), or the community (Guru Panth) through all of whom came the teaching of God, the Satguru (true Guru).
Guru Amar Das (1479-1574)
The third Sikh Guru. Consolidated the Panth and formalised the institution of langar.
Guru Angad (1504-1552)
The second Sikh Guru. Established centres for disseminating Nanak's teachings.
Guru Arjan (1563-1606)
The fifth Sikh Guru. Responsible for the original compilation of Adi Granth and for the completion of the building of the Harmandir Sahib in Amritsar. Began to train Sikhs to defend self and the faith and was tortured to death by the Mogul Emperor Jahangir.
Guru Gobind Singh (1666-1708)
The tenth Sikh Guru. In 1699 he founded the Khalsa during the festival of Vaisakhi. Established the Granth Sahib as the eternal Guru.
Guru Granth Sahib
The main book of Sikh scripture; 1430 pages long and containing hymns by six of the Sikh Gurus, nineteen other Sikhs and seventeen Hindu and Muslim holy men.
Guru Hargobind (1595-1644)
The sixth Sikh Guru. Organised the Sikhs into an army, in reaction to Muslim attempts at suppression.
Guru Har Krishnan (1656 - 1664)
The eighth Sikh Guru, who became guru at the age of 5, thus demonstrating that spirituality exists in all ages.
Guru Har Rai (1630-1661)
The seventh Sikh Guru. Although continuing to maintain an army, he was known for his strong spirituality.
Guru Ka Langer
(also see Langar)
Guru Nanak (1469-1539)
The first Sikh Guru. Born a Hindu in an area ruled by Muslims, became founder of the Sikh Faith.
Guru Ram Das (1534-1581)
The fourth Sikh Guru. Founded the town of Amritsar.
The Ten Gurus
Succession of Sikh gurus who taught in the Punjab during the 16th and 17th century:
Guru Tegh Bahdar (1621-1675)
The ninth Sikh Guru. The seventh, eighth and ninth Gurus were all involved in clashes with the Moguls. Guru Tegh Bahadur was beheaded in Delhi by the order of the Mogul Emperor Aurangzeb.